Question 24 - Upper Level: Reading Comprehension Practice Test for the ISEE

What type of figurative language is used in the bold portion of this sentence from the attached passage?

“The idea of struggling to breathe on a daily basis should be enough to make many people toss their cigarettes right out of the window!

\[\begin{array}{} {1} &\;\; \text{Several generations ago, cigarettes and smoking did not} \\ {2} & \;\;\text{carry the stigma that they do today. Many people smoked} \\ {3} & \;\;\text{without realizing the harmful effects it had on the human} \\ {4} & \;\;\text{body. Some early cigarette companies even touted their} \\ {5} &\;\; \text{brand as being healthy, wanting more people to choose their} \\ {6} & \;\;\text{product. Because it wasn’t seen as harmful during that time,} \\ {7} & \;\;\text{smoking was allowed in restaurants, offices, and even} \\ {8} & \;\;\text{hospitals. Today, we know better. Still, the CDC estimates} \\ {9} & \;\;\text{that 18 in every 100 Americans are smokers, and that over} \\ {10} & \;\;\text{16 million Americans live with smoking-related illnesses.} \\ \end{array}\] \[\begin{array}{} {11} &\;\; \text{While the possibility of lung cancer is generally the biggest} \\ {12} & \;\;\text{concern for smokers, a disease known as COPD should also} \\ {13} & \;\;\text{be taken into account. COPD, or chronic obstructive} \\ {14} & \;\;\text{pulmonary disease, is a lung disease that interrupts proper} \\ {15} &\;\; \text{air-flow within the lungs, causing the sufferer to be} \\ {16} & \;\;\text{chronically short-of-breath. The idea of struggling to breathe} \\ {17} & \;\;\text{on a daily basis should be enough to make many people} \\ {18} & \;\;\text{toss their cigarettes right out of the window!} \\ \end{array}\] \[\begin{array}{} {19} &\;\; \text{COPD is characterized by shortness of breath, coughing,} \\ {20} & \;\;\text{chest tightness, and the production of respiratory mucus,} \\ {21} & \;\;\text{known as sputum. While other factors such as pollution,} \\ {22} & \;\;\text{genetics, and prolonged exposure to harmful fumes can} \\ {23} &\;\; \text{cause COPD, the main cause of this disease is smoking. In} \\ {24} & \;\;\text{fact, statistics show that almost half of lifelong smokers will} \\ {25} & \;\;\text{be diagnosed with COPD. Once this disease has developed} \\ {26} & \;\;\text{in the respiratory system, it is very difficult to recover from. A} \\ {27} &\;\; \text{degenerative disease, COPD often requires the sufferer to} \\ {28} & \;\;\text{utilize physical therapy, medications, and supplemental} \\ {29} & \;\;\text{oxygen. In very serious cases, surgeries such as lung} \\ {30} & \;\;\text{transplants are necessary. Unfortunately, many COPD} \\ {31} &\;\; \text{sufferers continue to smoke, making it very difficult to qualify} \\ {32} & \;\;\text{for a transplant.} \\ \end{array}\] \[\begin{array}{} {33} &\;\; \text{Even if you have smoked for many years, it is never too late} \\ {34} & \;\;\text{to quit. Patients who have already been diagnosed with} \\ {35} & \;\;\text{COPD should not assume they have missed their chance, as} \\ {36} & \;\;\text{smoking cessation is shown to significantly improve the} \\ {37} &\;\; \text{symptoms of COPD. Even if the disease can never be fully} \\ {38} & \;\;\text{reversed, smoking should at least be stopped in order to} \\ {39} & \;\;\text{prevent symptoms from worsening over time. Many} \\ {40} & \;\;\text{healthcare centers across the country provide smoking} \\ {41} &\;\; \text{cessation programs for those who want to quit but have been} \\ {42} & \;\;\text{unsuccessful on their own. Taking advantage of these, or} \\ {43} & \;\;\text{similar, programs can help people reclaim a healthy, smoke-} \\ {44} & \;\;\text{free lifestyle.} \\ \end{array}\]

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