Question 28 - ELAR: Writing Practice Test for the TSIA2

Which paragraph of the attached passage should the following sentence be added to?

“Surface mining is generally faster and less expensive than underground mining.”

(1) Coal is a valuable energy source that has been mined for thousands of years. (2) Coal is a combustible organic rock composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (3) It’s use gained popularity during the industrial revolution as a relatively inexpensive and vast resource for generating electricity to power homes and factories. (4) Coal is found in almost every country in the world, making it one of the largest sources of energy for nations everywhere.

(5) Coal deposits, or coal beds, are underground; some are relatively near the Earth’s surface while others are buried deep below. (6) There are two main methods used to mine coal. (7) One is surface mining where large machines dig down through the top layer of rock and dirt to expose the coal. (8) The dirt can then be replaced after the mining and the land used for other purposes. (9) Underground mining, or deep mining, is used to extract deeper coal deposits and requires extensive underground mines be constructed. (10) Coal mining is a dangerous occupation. (11) Because miners are exposed to toxic dust from drilling into the coal and there is also a risk of explosions. (12) Mines have also been known to collapse, trapping or killing workers.

(13) Coal mining has come under fire in recent years because of the negative impact it has on human health and the environment. (14) Beyond the dangers faced by miners working in coal mines, run-off containing heavy metals and toxins exposed by mining can severely impact local watersheds, aquatic ecosystems, and pollute the groundwater. (15) Mining affects the landscape as surface mining requires the land above be totally cleared and underground mining can leave land too unstable to build upon. (16) Burning coal causes air pollution and likely contributes to global warming. (17) The days of human reliance on coal as a means to generate electricity may be coming to an end.

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