# Spatial Reasoning Study Guide for the CCAT

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## Outliers

Outlier questions involve identifying the element that does not belong within a set of elements. This can be based on shapes, numbers, letters, or other criteria. There are two main types: complex shapes and groupings of shapes.

### Complex Shapes

In complex shape outlier questions, you are given a set of complex shapes, and you must identify the one that does not follow the same pattern or rules as the others.

*Example 1:* Which of the figures below does *not* belong?

*Answer:* E. All the elements but E contain only two types of shapes. Element E contains three types of shapes.

*Example 2:* Which of the figures below does *not* belong?

*Answer:* C. Answer C is the only one in which the trapezoid shape is placed on the lines instead of in the spaces between the lines like all of the others.

### Groupings of Shapes

In groupings of shapes outlier questions, you are given groups of shapes and must identify the group that is different based on the arrangement, type, or number of shapes.

*Example 1:* Which of the following does not belong?

*Answer:* B. All the figures have two identical geometric shapes in the top row, except for B, which is the answer.

*Example 2:* Which of the following does not belong?

*Answer:* B. In most of these figures, three shapes are shaded, but in choice B only two are shaded, making it the one that does not belong.

## Exact Matches

Exact match questions involve identifying identical items within a set. These can include number series pairs and duplicates of three-dimensional (3-D) figures.

### Number Series Pairs

In these questions, you are given pairs of numbers and must identify the pairs that are identical. To best answer these questions, focus on comparing key distinctive features and eliminate obvious non-matches. For example, you can initially look at the first two or last two digits to quickly eliminate non-matches.

*Example 1:* How many of the five pairs of items listed below are exact duplicates?

*Answer:* C.

*Example 2:* How many of the five pairs of items listed below are exact duplicates?

*Answer:* B.

### Duplicates of Three Dimensional (3-D) Figures

In these questions, you are given a set of 3-D figures and must identify the figures that are identical. Pay attention to **small differences** that can make one element stand out as an outlier. Increasing your familiarity with different types of shapes will help improve your recognition. Be sure to compare all elements before making your final decision. It may also help to **count** the number of individual components within the larger 3-D figure to compare it to its partner.

*Example 1:* How many of the pairs below are exact duplicates?

*Answer:* B. Only the last pair is an exact duplicate. Pay close attention to the position and number of each individual shape within the 3-D figure. In the first pair, there are two rectangular solids in the middle of the first figure but only one in the second. Small differences like this are common. Similarly, in the second pair, there are three cylindrical shapes at the bottom of the first figure but four on the second. In the third pair, there is one cylinder in the top tier of the first figure but two on top of the second figure.

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