Flashcard 7 - Physiological Adaptation Flashcard Set for the NCLEX-RN Exam


The correct answer is:

cardiac output (CO) = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR)


Normal cardiac output is between 4 L/min and 8 L/min. Alterations in either variable (SV and/or HR) can impact CO. Likewise, decreased CO will adversely affect cardiac rate, rhythm, contractibility, preload, and afterload. These will all manifest with certain clinical signs and symptoms, some of which may be life-threatening.

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