To a chemist, a pure substance usually refers to a sample of matter that has a distinct set of properties that are common to all other samples of that substance. A good example would be ordinary salt, sodium chloride. No matter what its source (from a mine, evaporated from seawater, or made in the laboratory), all samples of this substance, once they have been purified, possess the same unique set of properties. A mixture, in contrast, is composed of two or more substances, and it can exhibit a wide range of properties depending on the relative amounts of the components present in the mixture. For example, you can dissolve up to 357 g of salt in one litre of water at room temperature, making possible an infinite variety of “salt water” solutions. For each of these concentrations, properties such as the density, boiling and freezing points, and the vapor pressure of the resulting solution will be different.
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