The Miller Analogies Test® (MAT®) is a computer-administered test that is used for admission to graduate school. It does assess background knowledge, but its primary purpose is to test how well you understand the English language and can use that language with your background knowledge to think about many types of relationships between things.
The entire test is composed of analogies that are incomplete. Your job is to complete them by selecting the correct word from four choices.
Each analogy represents some sort of relationship between two pairs of words. This similar relationship may be between the first two words and the third and fourth words or between the first and third words and the second and fourth words. There are also many types of relationships represented on the test, including size comparisons, opposites, locations, and many others.