Two studies were conducted by independent agencies. The purpose of each was to determine the cause of low achievement among minority students. The data for Study I was obtained from private schools with a minority population of at least 30%. Study II data came from public schools with the same minority population restriction. Average achievement scores for minority students were 20% higher in Study I after the implementation of a variety of supports. In Study II, achievement scores were higher at schools with a required parent involvement component, but the average was still not as high as at the top-achieving schools in Study I.