Helpful Formulas for the GED® Science Test
The scope of the GED® Science Test is limited to scientific skills rather than scientific knowledge or memorization. That’s great for you! You don’t have to remember lengthy formulas or concepts, but you need to handle the formulas with confidence. So, even though the formulas you’ll need will be given to you during the test, you’ll need to know *how * to use them. How can you achieve that? First, become familiar with the formulas in the chart below and then try answering the questions on our FREE GED Science test using the formulas for the GED® Science Test that are shown in the chart below.
You definitely will not have to deal with all of these formulas on the test. We’ve just listed all we found it would be even remotely possible to encounter during the test. Try working mainly with those you have seen in your previous GED® prep studies.
Formulas for the GED Science Test
Category  Formula  Symbols  Comment 

General Science and Statistics 
\(Du=Su \cdot \dfrac{Du}{Su}=Su \cdot CF\)  Du = Desired Unit Su = Starting Unit CF = Conversion Factor 
Multiple steps may be needed. 
General Science and Statistics 
\(a \cdot b\% =a \cdot \frac{b}{100}\)  a = any real number b% = any percent 
Remember to simplify if necessary 
General Science and Statistics 
\(\% = \frac{\vert ba \vert }{b} \cdot 100= \frac{c}{b} \cdot 100\)  % = % increase or decrease a = new value b = original value c = amount of change 

General Science and Statistics 
\(\overline{x}= \dfrac{\Sigma x_i}{n}\)  \(\overline{x}\) = mean \(x_i\) = value of each measurement n = number of measurements 

General Science and Statistics 
\(Md=(\dfrac{n+1}{2})^{th} term\)  Md = median n = number of measurements (odd) 

General Science and Statistics 
\(Md=\dfrac{(\frac{n}{2})^{th} term + (\frac{n+1}{2})^{th} term }{2}\)  Md = median n = number of measurements (even) 

General Science and Statistics 
\(s=\sqrt{\Sigma(x_i\overline{x})^2/(n1)}\)  s = standard deviation \(\overline{x}\) = mean \(x_i\) = value of each measurement n = number of measurements 

General Science and Statistics 
\(V=s^2\)  v = Variance s = standard deviation 

General Science and Statistics 
\(CV=RSD=100 \cdot \dfrac{s}{\overline{x}}\)  CV = Coefficient of variation RSD = Relative standard deviation s = standard deviation 

General Science and Statistics 
\(^\circ F\) = \(^\circ C \cdot \dfrac{9}{5} + 32^\circ\) or \(^\circ C = (^\circ F 32) \cdot \dfrac{5}{9}\) 
\(^\circ F\) = Degrees Fahrenheit \(^\circ C\) = Degrees Celsius 

Physics  \(w=m \cdot g\)  w = weight (N) m = mass (kg) g = acceleration of gravity (\(\frac{m}{s^2}\)) 

Physics  \(v=\dfrac{d}{t}\)  v = Velocity (\(\frac{m}{s}\)) d = distance (displacement) (m) t = time (s) 

Physics  \(a = \dfrac{\Delta V}{\Delta t}\)  a = acceleration (\(\frac{m}{s^2}\)) \(\Delta V\) = change in velocity (\(\frac{m}{s}\)) \(\Delta t\) = change in time (s) 

Physics  \(v = v_o + a \cdot t\)  v = Velocity (\(\frac{m}{s}\)) \(v_o\) = initial velocity (\(\frac{m}{s}\)) a = acceleration (\(\frac{m}{s^2}\)) t = time (s) 

Physics  \(x = x_o + v_o \cdot t + \frac{1}{2}a \cdot t^2\)  x = position (m) \(x_o\) = initial position (m) \(v_o\) = initial velocity \((\frac{m}{s})\) t = time (s) a = acceleration \((\frac{m}{s^2})\) 

Physics  \(v^2 = v_o^2+2a \cdot (xx_o)\)  v = Velocity (\(\frac{m}{s}\)) \(v_o\) = initial velocity \((\frac{m}{s})\) a = acceleration \((\frac{m}{s^2})\) x = position (m) \(x_o\) = initial position (m) 

Physics  \(f=m \cdot a\)  f = force (N) m = mass (kg) a = acceleration (\(\frac{m}{s^2}\)) 

Physics  \(p=mv\)  p = momentum (\(\frac{kg \cdot m}{s}\)) m = mass (kg) v = velocity (\(\frac{m}{s}\)) 

Physics  \(w = f \cdot d\)  w = work (J) f = force (N) d = distance (m) 

Physics  \(P= \dfrac{w}{t}\)  P = power (W) w = work (J) t = time (s) 

Physics  \(PE_g = m \cdot g \cdot h\)  \(PE_g\) = Gravitational Potential Energy (J) m = mass (kg) g = acceleration of gravity (\(\frac{m}{s^2}\)) h = height (m) 

Physics  \(KE = \frac{1}{2} \cdot m \cdot v^2\)  KE = kinetic energy (J) m = mass (kg) v = velocity (\(\frac{m}{v}\)) 

Physics  \(MA = \dfrac{Ld}{Ef} = \dfrac{Ld_d}{Ef_d}\)  MA = Mechanical Advantage Ld = Load (N) Ef = Effort (N) \(Ld_d\) = Load distance (m) \(Ef_d\) = Effort distance (m) 

Physics  \(F_g = \dfrac{G \cdot M \cdot m}{r^2}\)  \(F_g\) = Gravitational force (N) G = Gravitation constant (\(6.67 \times 10^11 N m^2/kg^2\)) M and m = masses of two bodies (kg) 

Physics  \(F_b = r_f \cdot g \cdot V\)  \(F_b\) = Buoyant force (N) \(r_f\) = Density of fluid displaced (\(\frac{kg}{m^3}\)) g = Acceleration of gravity (\(9.8 \dfrac{m}{s^2}\)) V = volume of fluid \((m^3)\) 

Physics  \(V=IR\)  V = potential difference (V) I = current (A) R = resistance (\(\Omega\)) 
Ohm’s Law 
Physics  \(\lambda = \dfrac{v}{f}\)  \(\lambda\) = wavelength (m) v = velocity of wave (\(\frac{m}{s}\)) f = frequency \(\frac{1}{s}\) or Hz 

Physics  \(Q = m \cdot c \cdot \Delta t\)  Q = Transferred heat (J) m = mass (g) c = specific heat capacity (\(\frac{J}{g \cdot K})\) \(\Delta t\) = change in temperature (K) 

Chemistry  \(d=\dfrac{m}{v}\)  d = density (\(\frac{g}{cm^3}\)) m = mass (g) v = volume (\(cm^3\)) 

Chemistry  \(^A_ZX\)  A = Mass Number Z = Atomic Number = Number of protons X = Atom symbol 

Chemistry  \(A=Z+N\)  A = Mass Number Z = Atomic Number = Number of protons N = Number of neutrons 

Chemistry  \(M=\dfrac{m}{n}\)  M = Molar mass (\(\frac{g}{mole}\)) m = (g) n = (moles) 

Chemistry  \(K =\) \(^\circ C + 273\)  K = Kelvin temperature \(^\circ C\) = Celsius temperature 

Chemistry  \(PV=nRT\)  P = Pressure of gas (units vary) V = Volume of gas (L) n = Number of moles (mol) R = Ideal Gas Constant (units vary) T = Temperature (K) 

Chemistry  \(m_r=m_p\)  \(m_r\) = mass of reactants \(m_p\) = mass of products 
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